ODIN'S WARRIORS

ACADEMY INSTRUCTOR AND 3 X NORWEGIAN GLIMA CHAMPION, ANDREAS SØRENSEN, IS FEATURED AS EINHERJAR IN THE BOOK, VIKING WISDOM - HÁVAMÁL - THE SAYINGS OF ODIN

ACADEMY INSTRUCTOR AND 3 X NORWEGIAN GLIMA CHAMPION, ANDREAS SØRENSEN, IS FEATURED AS EINHERJAR IN THE BOOK, VIKING WISDOM - HÁVAMÁL - THE SAYINGS OF ODIN

In Norse mythology, Odin sends his Valkyries to select the bravest warriors on Midgard. These brave warriors are then chosen by the valkyrie to die in battle and accompany them to Asgard. Once they are in Asgard, the fallen brave are divided between Odin and Freya. Those chosen by Odin are called Einherjar, which means One-army in Old Norse.

The sole purpose of the einherjar is to fight as Odin's warriors. Every day they train and prepare for the biggest battle in Norse Mythology; Ragnarök, meaning "Fate of the Gods".

The einherjar stay at Odin’s hall called Valhalla, the 'Hall of the fallen'. In Vallhalla, the einherjar will be taken care of by the valkyrie, who will give the warriors mead and ensure that they thrive. 

In the morning when the einherjer wake, they ready themselves with their armor, helmet, shield and weapons, and then go to iðavöllr for combat training. The einherjar continue their brutal combat training until sundown, when the fallen arise unscathed, and all ride back to Valhalla as good friends, where the valkyrie serve mead and meat from the boar Sæhrímnir, to the einherjar warriors.  

The einherjar symbol is the Valknut, a symbol consisting of three interlocked triangles. Valknut is from the Old Norse ‘valras’ meaning 'killed warriors’ and ‘knut’ meaning 'knot '. This symbol found on various Norse and Germanic places, like runestones and the Osberg ship.

                                                                         THE VALKNUT ON THE STORA HAMMARS I STONE, GOTLAND, SWEDEN

                                                                         THE VALKNUT ON THE STORA HAMMARS I STONE, GOTLAND, SWEDEN

One of the Norwegian kings who became an Einherjar is Håkon the Good. It is the valkyrie Skogul who chooses that the jarl will die in battle and be with her to Valhalla. When Håkon arrives at Valhalla, he dreads meeting Odin, as he chose a different faith. But Håkon is welcomed by the gods, and the god Bragi tells Håkon that he has eight brothers in Valhalla, that he should drink of the Æsir’s mead, and that would possess the peace from all einherjar.

Eirik Bloodaxe is another Norwegian king chosen to be einherjer. In Valhalla, the god Bragi wondered who was making the sound of thunder. Odin replied that Bragi know it was Eirik Bloodaxe who would shortly be arriving in Valhalla. There was a reason for celebration new einherjer came to Valhalla, especially einherjer who were kings.

Einherjar are a confirmation in Norse mythology, that to live a bold life, a person can be reborn at a higher level, meaning to live with the gods. With the gods, the einherjar have one task, which is to fight at Ragnarok, and sacrifice themselves for the new world.

VALKYRIE

Valkyrie are female spirits who are Odin's warriors. The Old Norse word valr, means those who fall in battle, and kyrja means to choose. In Old Norse, Valkyrie means the 'choosers of the slain', which describes their mission.

Valkyries choose the bravest and most courageous warriors to fall on a battlefield, and determine the outcome of the battle. The valkyries then take the fallen warriors with them to Asgard.

                                                   The Ride of the Valkyries by W.T. Maud  (1890)

                                                   The Ride of the Valkyries by W.T. Maud  (1890)

In Asgard the Norse goddess Freya gets half the fallen warriors and takes them to her home Folkvangen, "the field of the warriors". The remainder of the fallen warriors become Odin's einherjar and stay at Valhalla.

In Valhalla, the tasks of the valkyrie are to serve Odin and the einherjar. Here the valkyries ensure that the einherjar have enough mead to drink, which is an important ritual in Valhalla. The valkyries are important to sacred Norse ceremonies, and in such rituals, the valkyries fill the drinking horn with mead that brings out memories.

Valkyrie were concerned that the dead were buried in kindness, and the valkyries accompanied Odin and Frigg to one of the largest ceremonies in Norse Mythology, that of Balder's funeral.

There are two kinds of valkyrie in Norse mythology. The original valkyrie are those that come from Valhalla. The other valkyrie are half human and half divine, who lived on earth as mortal women, then traveled to Valhalla after their death.

They are also portrayed as everything from beautiful sheild-maiden/hostess to fearsome spirits. The Icelandic scholar Snorri Sturluson, between 1220 and 1241, described valkyries as semi-goddesses with shield and sword or spear. Poems and sagas written before, and after, Snorri, have described the valkyries as monsters who tread bloody battlefields in search of brave warriors.

It is written that valkyries are armed and dressed in full armor, with shields and helmets. Valkyries are skilled riders and ride their horses in herds, through the air, water and overland. When valkyries come galloping through the air can than see a glimpse of the bright light that may seem like a lightning flash across the sky. When they are on the ground, it may look like they are on fire.

Valkyries are lovers of heroes and other mortals, and some valkyrie were the daughters of kings. Sometimes valkyries can change into swans, and sometimes they have with them ravens, who they can communicate with. In the poem Oddrúnargrátr, the valkyries are also called óskmey, "wish maid", and in the Nafnaþulur they are also called Óðins meyjar, "Odin's maids".

Valkyries also have knowledge of magical abilities of the runes. They also have the power of healing and are able to give good advice on how people should live their lives. Valkyries advise on how people should behave at a Thing, Viking parliament, that a man should not argue with someone who is drunk, that he should not let a beautiful women seduce him, that he should not force young girls or married women to sex, to not be vengeful on people who have flaunted themselves, and to be brave in battle.

Some valkyries went against Odin's will, which meant that he punished them harshly. The most famous of these is the valkyrie Brynhild, whose name means 'armor battle' or 'shining battle'. Brynhild has seven sisters, all of whom are valkyries, and she is known as the strongest of the valkyries.

              Wotan takes leave of Brunhild by Konrad Dielitz (1892)

              Wotan takes leave of Brunhild by Konrad Dielitz (1892)

In the Poetic Edda is a short Old Norse verse called Helreið Brynhild, "Brynhild's journey to Hel". The poem describes Brynhild as a Valkyrie and shieldmaiden. During an important assignment for Odin, Brynhild disappointed the All-father during an important assignment. As punishment, Odin sentenced her to live life as a mortal woman.

Brynhild was imprisoned in a remote castle, where she had to sleep inside a circle of flames until a brave man came to rescue and marry her. The brave hero who rescued her was 'Sigurd the dragon slayer', and the story has a tragic ending.

 

Valkyries are mentioned or appear in the Poetic Edda poems Völuspá, Grímnismál, Völundarkviða, Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar, Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, Helgakviða Hundingsbana II and Sigrdrífumál. Many valkyrie names are mentioned in the Eddas, and many of the names emphasize associations with battle, especially the spear, which is associated with Odin.

                             Valkyrie / Shield maiden amulet - Hårby in Denmark                                                                                 Rök Runestone

                             Valkyrie / Shield maiden amulet - Hårby in Denmark                                                                                 Rök Runestone

Archaeological excavations throughout Scandinavia have uncovered amulets theorized as depicting valkyries. Specific valkyrie are mentioned on two runestones; a valkyrie riding a wolf as her steed on the early 9th century Rök Runestone in Östergötland, Sweden, and the valkyrie Þrúðr on the 10th-century Karlevi Runestone on the island of Öland, Sweden.

                                                                                                                                                                    the Oseberg Tapestry

                                                                                                                                                                    the Oseberg Tapestry

In 1905, the 9th century Oseberg Viking ship was discovered in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg, Norway. Amongst the grave goods found on the wreckage of this amazing ship, were some fabrics, including a stunning fragmentary tapestry depicting a Viking Age ceremony.

This fabric, called the Oseberg Tapestry, which was probably a part of the funeral offering in the Oseberg ship, was created in about the year 834. Over 1100 years old, the tapestry is in bad condition and its decay meant it took several years to extract. 

The fragments of this beautiful national treasure feature a scene of what looks like a procession. Amongst the many images in this scene are two black birds, very probably Odin's ravens Huginn and Munnin, hovering over a horse with a rider who could be Odin. Also featured in the scene are images of valkyries carrying drinking horns, as they would at a sacred Norse ceremony.